The ANWFZ Treaty (the Pelindaba Treaty) was opened for signature in Cairo, Egypt, on 11 April 1996, and entered into force on 15 July 2009.

Pursuant to this Treaty, Each Party undertakes not to conduct research on, develop, manufacture, stockpile or otherwise acquire, possess or have control over any nuclear explosive device by any means anywhere; not to seek or receive any assistance in the research on, or development, manufacture, stockpiling or acquisition, or possession of, any nuclear explosive device; and not to take any action to assist or encourage the research on, or development, manufacture, stockpiling or acquisition or possession of, any nuclear explosive device.

The Parties also undertake to prohibit the stationing of nuclear weapons and the testing of any nuclear explosive devices on their territory. The Pelindaba Treaty also contains an article on the declaration, dismantling, destruction or conversion of nuclear explosive devices, and the facilities for their manufacture, under IAEA verification.

Under the Pelindaba Treaty, each State Party undertakes to conduct all activities for the peaceful use of nuclear energy under strict non-proliferation measures to provide assurance of exclusively peaceful uses, to conclude a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the IAEA and not to export source or special fissionable material, or especially designed or prepared equipment or material, to NNWSs unless subject to a comprehensive safeguards agreement.

Associated with this Treaty are three protocols:

Protocol I is open to signature by the five NPT NWSs and binds the States not to use or threaten to use a nuclear explosive device against a Party to the Treaty or any territory within the African NWFZ for which a State that has become a Party to Protocol III is internationally responsible;

Protocol II, also open to signature by the five NWSs, commits the Parties to it not to test or assist or encourage the testing of a nuclear explosive device within the zone;

Protocol III, similar to Additional Protocol I of the Tlatelolco Treaty and Protocol 1 of the Rarotonga Treaty, which is open to all States having territories with respect to which they have, de jure or de facto, international responsibility situated in the zone, requires, inter alia, the application of safeguards to such territories.

Download the Treaty of Pelindaba


List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (The Pelindaba Treaty)